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AIM 

6/17/21 

1. 

Special attention should be given to the parts 

which differ from U.S. CFRs. 

(a) 

The Canadian Airways Class B airspace 

restriction is an example. Class B airspace is all 
controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet MSL 
or the MEA, whichever is higher, within which only 
IFR and controlled VFR flights are permitted. (Low 
level airspace means an airspace designated and 
defined as such in the Designated Airspace 
Handbook.) 

(b) 

Unless issued a VFR flight clearance by 

ATC,  regardless of the weather conditions or the 

height of the terrain, no person may operate an 
aircraft under VMC within Class B airspace. 

(c) 

The requirement for entry into Class B 

airspace is a student pilot permit (under the guidance 
or control of a flight instructor). 

(d) 

VFR flight requires visual contact with 

the ground or water at all times. 

2. 

Segments of VOR airways and high level 

routes in Canada are based on L/MF navigation aids 
and are charted in brown color instead of blue on 
en route charts. 

FIG 5

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Adhering to Airways or Routes 

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5.  Airway or Route Course Changes 

a. 

Pilots of aircraft are required to adhere to 

airways or routes being flown. Special attention must 
be given to this requirement during course changes. 
Each course change consists of variables that make 
the technique applicable in each case a matter only the 
pilot can resolve. Some variables which must be 
considered are turn radius, wind effect, airspeed, 
degree of turn, and cockpit instrumentation. An early 
turn, as illustrated below, is one method of adhering 
to airways or routes. The use of any available cockpit 

instrumentation, such as Distance Measuring Equip-
ment, may be used by the pilot to lead the turn when 
making course changes. This 

is consistent

 with the 

intent of 14 CFR Section 91.181, which requires 
pilots to operate along the centerline of an airway and 
along the direct course between navigational aids or 
fixes. 

b. 

Turns which begin at or after fix passage may 

exceed airway or route boundaries. FIG 5

3

contains an example flight track depicting this, 
together with an example of an early turn. 

En Route Procedures 

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