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The aircraft on the offset course approach must see the runway-landing environment and, if ATC 
has advised that traffic on the straight-in approach is a factor, the offset course approach aircraft 
must visually acquire the straight-in approach aircraft and report it in sight to ATC prior to reach-
ing the DA for the offset course approach. 


The Clear of Clouds point is the position on the offset final approach course where aircraft 
first operate in visual meteorological conditions below the ceiling, when the actual weather 
conditions are at, or near, the minimum ceiling for SOIA operations. Ceiling is defined by the 
Aeronautical Information Manual. 


SOIA PRM approaches utilize the same dual 

communications procedures as do other PRM 



At KSFO, pilots conducting SOIA operations select the 
monitor frequency audio when communicating with the 
final radar controller, not the tower controller as is 
customary. In this special case, the monitor controller’s 
transmissions, if required, override the final controller’s 
frequency. This procedure is addressed on the AAUP. 


SOIA utilizes the same AAUP format as 

do other PRM approaches. The minimum weather 
conditions that are required are listed. Because of the 
more complex nature of instructions for conducting 
SOIA approaches, the “Runway Specific” items are 
more numerous and lengthy. 


Examples of SOIA offset runway specific 



Aircraft must remain on the offset 

course until passing the offset MAP prior to 
maneuvering to align with the centerline of the offset 
approach runway. 


Pilots are authorized to continue past 

the offset MAP to align with runway centerline when: 


the straight

in approach traffic is in 

sight and is expected to remain in sight, 


ATC has been advised that “traffic is 

in sight.” (ATC is not required to acknowledge this 


the runway environment is in sight. 

Otherwise, a missed approach must be executed. 
Between the offset MAP and the runway threshold, 
pilots conducting the offset PRM approach must not 
pass the straight

in aircraft and are responsible for 

separating themselves visually from traffic conduct-
ing the straight

in PRM approach to the adjacent 

runway, which means maneuvering the aircraft as 
necessary to avoid that traffic until landing, and 

providing wake turbulence avoidance, if applicable. 
Pilots maintaining visual separation should advise 
ATC, as soon as practical, if visual contact with the 
aircraft conducting the straight

in PRM approach is 

lost and execute a missed approach unless otherwise 
instructed by ATC. 


Examples of SOIA straight

in runway 

specific notes: 


To facilitate the offset aircraft in 

providing wake mitigation, pilots should descend on, 
not above, the glideslope/glidepath. 


Conducting the straight

in approach, 

pilots should be aware that the aircraft conducting the 
offset approach will be approaching from the 
right/left rear and will be operating in close proximity 
to the straight

in aircraft. 

7.  Recap. 

The following are differences between widely spaced 
simultaneous approaches (at least 4,300 feet between 
the runway centerlines) and Simultaneous PRM close 
parallel approaches which are of importance to the pi-

(a)  Runway Spacing.

 Prior to PRM simulta-

neous close parallel approaches, most ATC


breakouts were the result of two aircraft in

trail on 

the same final approach course getting too close 
together. Two aircraft going in the same direction did 
not mandate quick reaction times. With PRM closely 
spaced approaches, two aircraft could be alongside 
each other, navigating on courses that are separated 
by less than 4,300 feet and as close as 3,000 feet. In 
the unlikely event that an aircraft “blunders” off its 
course and makes a worst case turn of 30 degrees 
toward the adjacent final approach course, closing 
speeds of 135 feet per second could occur that 
constitute the need for quick reaction. A blunder has 
to be recognized by the monitor controller, and 
breakout instructions issued to the endangered 
aircraft. The pilot will not have any warning that a 

Arrival Procedures