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breakout is imminent because the blundering aircraft 
will be on another frequency. It is important that, 
when a pilot receives breakout instructions, the 
assumption is made that a blundering aircraft is about 
to (or has penetrated the NTZ) and is heading toward 
his/her approach course. The pilot must initiate a 
breakout as soon as safety allows. While conducting 
PRM approaches, pilots must maintain an increased 
sense of awareness in order to immediately react to an 
ATC (breakout) instruction and maneuver (as 
instructed by ATC) away from a blundering aircraft. 

(b)  Communications.

 Dual VHF communi-

cations procedures should be carefully followed. One 
of the assumptions made that permits the safe conduct 
of PRM approaches is that there will be no blocked 

(c)  Hand

flown Breakouts. 

The use of the 

autopilot is encouraged while flying a PRM 
approach, but the autopilot must be disengaged in the 
rare event that a breakout is issued. Simulation 
studies of breakouts have shown that a hand


breakout can be initiated consistently faster than a 
breakout performed using the autopilot. 

(d)  TCAS.

 The ATC breakout instruction is 

the primary means of conflict resolution. TCAS, if 
installed, provides another form of conflict resolution 
in the unlikely event other separation standards 
would fail. TCAS is not required to conduct a closely 
spaced approach. 

The TCAS provides only vertical resolution of air-
craft conflicts, while the ATC breakout instruction 
provides both vertical and horizontal guidance for 
conflict resolutions. Pilots should always immediate-
ly follow the TCAS Resolution Advisory (RA), 
whenever it is received. Should a TCAS RA be re-
ceived before, during, or after an ATC breakout 
instruction is issued, the pilot should follow the RA, 
even if it conflicts with the climb/descent portion of 
the breakout maneuver. If following an RA requires 
deviating from an ATC clearance, the pilot must ad-
vise ATC as soon as practical. While following an 
RA, it is extremely important that the pilot also com-
ply with the turn portion of the ATC breakout 
instruction unless the pilot determines safety to be 
factor. Adhering to these procedures assures the pilot 
that acceptable “breakout” separation margins will 
always be provided, even in the face of a normal pro-
cedural or system failure. 



17.  Simultaneous Converging 

Instrument Approaches 


ATC may conduct instrument approaches 

simultaneously to converging runways; i.e., runways 
having an included angle from 15 to 100 degrees, at 
airports where a program has been specifically 
approved to do so. 


The basic concept requires that dedicated, 

separate standard instrument approach procedures be 
developed for each converging runway included. 
These approaches can be identified by the letter “V” 
in the title; for example, “ILS V Rwy 17 
(CONVERGING)”.  Missed Approach Points must 
be at least 3 miles apart and missed approach 
procedures ensure that missed approach protected 
airspace does not overlap. 


Other requirements are: radar availability, 

nonintersecting final approach courses, precision 
approach capability for each runway and, if runways 
intersect, controllers must be able to apply visual 
separation as well as intersecting runway separation 
criteria. Intersecting runways also require minimums 
of at least 700 foot ceilings and 2 miles visibility. 
Straight in approaches and landings must be made. 


Whenever simultaneous converging approach-

es are in use, aircraft will be informed by the 
controller as soon as feasible after initial contact or 
via ATIS. Additionally, the radar controller will have 
direct communications capability with the tower 
controller where separation responsibility has not 
been delegated to the tower. 



18.  RNP AR Instrument Approach 


These procedures require authorization analogous to 
the special authorization required for Category II or 
III ILS procedures. Authorization required (AR) 
procedures are to be conducted by aircrews meeting 
special training requirements in aircraft that meet the 
specified performance and functional requirements. 

a.  Unique characteristics of RNP AR Ap-


1.  RNP value. 

Each published line of minima 

has an associated RNP value. The indicated value 
defines the lateral and vertical performance require-
ments. A minimum RNP type is documented as part 
of the RNP AR authorization for each operator and 
may vary depending on aircraft configuration or 

Arrival Procedures