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AIM 

6/17/21 

procedure by name from the aircraft navigation 
database, not just as a manually entered series of 
waypoints. 

3. 

Whenever possible, RNAV routes (Q

 or 

T

route)  should be extracted from the database in 

their entirety, rather than loading RNAV route 
waypoints from the database into the flight plan 
individually. However, selecting and inserting 
individual, named fixes from the database is 
permitted, provided all fixes along the published 
route to be flown are inserted. 

4. 

Pilots must not change any database 

waypoint type from a fly

by to fly

over, or vice 

versa. No other modification of database waypoints 
or the creation of user

defined waypoints on 

published RNAV or RNP procedures is permitted, 
except to: 

(a) 

Change altitude and/or airspeed waypoint 

constraints to comply with an ATC clearance/ 
instruction. 

(b) 

Insert a waypoint along the published 

route to assist in complying with ATC instruction, 
example, “Descend via the WILMS arrival except 
cross 30 north of BRUCE at/or below FL 210.” This 
is limited only to systems that allow along

track 

waypoint construction. 

5. 

Pilots of FMS

equipped aircraft, who are 

assigned an RNAV DP or STAR procedure and 
subsequently receive a change of runway, transition 
or procedure, must verify that the appropriate 
changes are loaded and available for navigation. 

6. 

For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots must use 

a CDI, flight director and/or autopilot, in lateral 
navigation mode. Other methods providing an 
equivalent level of performance may also be 
acceptable. 

7. 

For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots of 

aircraft without GPS, using DME/DME/IRU, must 
ensure the aircraft navigation system position is 
confirmed, within 1,000 feet, at the start point of 
take

off roll. The use of an automatic or manual 

runway update is an acceptable means of compliance 
with this requirement. Other methods providing an 
equivalent level of performance may also be 
acceptable. 

8. 

For procedures or routes requiring the use of 

GPS, if the navigation system does not automatically 
alert the flight crew of a loss of GPS, the operator 
must develop procedures to verify correct GPS 
operation. 

9. 

RNAV terminal procedures (DP and STAR) 

may be amended by ATC issuing radar vectors and/or 
clearances direct to a waypoint. Pilots should avoid 
premature manual deletion of waypoints from their 
active “legs” page to allow for rejoining procedures. 

10. 

RAIM Prediction: If TSO

C129 equipment 

is used to solely satisfy the RNAV and RNP 
requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be 
confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and 
time). If RAIM is not available, pilots need an 
approved alternate means of navigation. 

REFERENCE

 

AIM, Paragraph 5

1

16 , RNAV and RNP Operations 

11.  Definition of “established” for RNAV and 

RNP operations.

 An aircraft is considered to be 

established on-course during RNAV and RNP 
operations anytime it is within 1 times the required 
accuracy for the segment being flown. For example, 
while operating on a Q-Route (RNAV 2), the aircraft 
is considered to be established on-course when it is 
within 2 NM of the course centerline. 

NOTE

 

1. 

Pilots must be aware of how their navigation system 

operates, along with any AFM limitations, and confirm 
that the aircraft’s lateral deviation display (or map display 
if being used as an allowed alternate means) is suitable for 
the accuracy of the segment being flown. Automatic scaling 
and alerting changes are appropriate for some operations. 
For example, TSO-C129 systems change within 30 miles of 
destination and within 2 miles of FAF to support approach 
operations. For some navigation systems and operations, 
manual selection of scaling will be necessary. 

2. 

Pilots flying FMS equipped aircraft with barometric 

vertical navigation (Baro-VNAV) may descend when the 
aircraft is established on-course following FMS leg 
transition to the next segment. Leg transition normally 
occurs at the turn bisector for a fly-by waypoint (reference 
paragraph 1-2-1 for more on waypoints). When using full 
automation, pilots should monitor the aircraft to ensure the 
aircraft is turning at appropriate lead times and 
descending once established on-course. 

3. 

Pilots flying TSO-C129 navigation system equipped 

aircraft without full automation should use normal lead 
points to begin the turn. Pilots may descend when 
established on-course on the next segment of the approach. 

5

5

Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities