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Arrival Procedures

yet been developed for straight

in landing operations below DA/DH or MDA under IFR to heliports or

platforms. An EFVS cannot be used in lieu of natural vision to descend below published minimums on copter
approaches to a point in space (PinS) followed by a “proceed visual flight rules (VFR)” visual segment, or on
approaches designed to a specific landing site using a “proceed visually” visual segment.

g. EFVS Pilot Requirements. 

A pilot who conducts EFVS operations must receive ground and flight training

specific to the EFVS operation to be conducted. The training must be obtained from an authorized training
provider under a training program approved by the FAA. Additionally, recent flight experience and proficiency
or competency check requirements apply to EFVS operations. These requirements are addressed in 14 CFR
§§ 61.66, 91.1065, 121.441, Appendix F to Part 121, 125.287, and 135.293.

h. Enhanced Flight Visibility and Visual Reference Requirements.

 To descend below DA/DH or MDA

during EFVS operations under 14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b), a pilot must make a determination that the enhanced
flight visibility observed by using an EFVS is not less than what is prescribed by the IAP being flown. In addition,
the visual references required in 14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b) must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot
using the EFVS. The determination of enhanced flight visibility is a separate action from that of identifying
required visual references, and is different from ground

reported visibility. Even though the reported visibility

or the visibility observed using natural vision may be less, as long as the EFVS provides the required enhanced
flight visibility and a pilot meets all of the other requirements, the pilot can continue descending below DA/DH
or MDA using the EFVS. Suitable enhanced flight visibility is necessary to ensure the aircraft is in a position
to continue the approach and land. It is important to understand that using an EFVS does not result in obtaining
lower minima with respect to the visibility or the DA/DH or MDA specified in the IAP. An EFVS simply provides
another means of operating in the visual segment of an IAP. The DA/DH or MDA and the visibility value
specified in the IAP to be flown do not change.

i. Flight Planning and Beginning or Continuing an Approach Under IFR.

 A Part 121, 125, or 135

operator’s OpSpec or LOA for EFVS operations may authorize an EFVS operational credit dispatching or
releasing a flight and for beginning or continuing an instrument approach procedure. When a pilot reaches
DA/DH or MDA, the pilot conducts the EFVS operation in accordance with 14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b) and their
authorization to conduct EFVS operations.

j. Missed Approach Considerations.

 In order to conduct an EFVS operation, the EFVS must be operable.

In the event of a failure of any required component of an EFVS at any point in the approach to touchdown, a
missed approach is required. However, this provision does not preclude a pilot’s authority to continue an
approach if continuation of an approach is considered by the pilot to be a safer course of action.

k. Light Emitting Diode (LED) Airport Lighting Impact on EFVS Operations.

 Incandescent lamps are

being replaced with LEDs at some airports in threshold lights, taxiway edge lights, taxiway centerline lights, low
intensity runway edge lights, windcone lights, beacons, and some obstruction lighting. Additionally, there are
plans to replace incandescent lamps with LEDs in approach lighting systems.  Pilots should be aware that LED
lights cannot be sensed by infrared

based EFVSs. Further, the FAA does not currently collect or disseminate

information about where LED lighting is installed.

l. Other Vision Systems.

 Unlike an EFVS that meets the equipment requirements of 14 CFR § 91.176, a

Synthetic Vision System (SVS) or Synthetic Vision Guidance System (SVGS) does not provide a real


sensor image of the outside scene and also does not meet the equipment requirements for EFVS operations. A
pilot cannot use a synthetic vision image on a head

up or a head

down display in lieu of natural vision to descend

below DA/DH or MDA. An EFVS can, however, be integrated with an SVS, also known as a Combined Vision
System (CVS). A CVS can be used to conduct EFVS operations if all of the requirements for an EFVS are
satisfied and the SVS image does not interfere with the pilot’s ability to see the external scene, to identify the
required visual references, or to see the sensor image.

m. Additional Information. 

Operational criteria for EFVS can be found in Advisory Circular (AC) 90


Enhanced Flight Vision System Operations, and airworthiness criteria for EFVS can be found in AC 20


Airworthiness Approval of Enhanced Vision System, Synthetic Vision System, Combined Vision System, and
Enhanced Flight Vision System Equipment.