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to understand, however, that PBN systems, (with the 
exception of VOR/DME RNAV equipment) navigate 
by reference to true north and display magnetic 
course only for pilot reference. As such, a 



PBN system, containing a 

current and 

accurate navigational database

, should fly the 

correct ground track for any loaded instrument 
procedure, despite differences in displayed magnetic 
course that may be attributed to magnetic variation 
application. Should significant differences between 
the approach chart and the PBN system avionics’ 
application of the navigation database arise, the 
published approach chart, supplemented by NOT-
AMs, holds precedence. 


The course into a waypoint may not 

always be 180 degrees different from the course 
leaving the previous waypoint, due to the PBN 
system avionics’ computation of geodesic paths, 
distance between waypoints, and differences in 
magnetic variation application.  Variations in 
distances may also occur since PBN system 


waypoint values are ATDs computed to 

the next waypoint and the DME values published on 
underlying procedures are slant

range distances 

measured to the station. This difference increases 
with aircraft altitude and proximity to the NAVAID. 

(l)  GPS Familiarization 

Pilots should practice GPS approaches in visual 
meteorological conditions (VMC) until thoroughly 
proficient with all aspects of their equipment 
(receiver and installation) prior to attempting flight 

in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). 
Pilots should be proficient in the following areas: 


Using the receiver autonomous integ-

rity monitoring (RAIM) prediction function; 


Inserting a DP into the flight plan, 

including setting terminal CDI sensitivity, if required, 
and the conditions under which terminal RAIM is 
available for departure; 


Programming the destination airport; 


Programming and flying the ap-

proaches (especially procedure turns and arcs); 


Changing to another approach after 

selecting an approach; 


Programming and flying “direct” 

missed approaches; 


Programming and flying “routed” 

missed approaches; 


Entering, flying, and exiting holding 

patterns, particularly on approaches with a second 
waypoint in the holding pattern; 


Programming and flying a “route” from 

a holding pattern; 


Programming and flying an approach 

with radar vectors to the intermediate segment; 


Indication of the actions required for 

RAIM failure both before and after the FAWP; and 


Programming a radial and distance 

from a VOR (often used in departure instructions). 

Navigation Aids